I was very interested in this story because I am a musician who writes. I have often wondered if being a musician influences the way I write. I think it does.
When I write poetry (not that often, I am a beginner) I approach it like songwriting. But since there is no structured music, I can be freer with the “melody.” And I don’t have to think about rhyming or number of syllables (I don’t write Haikus or other poetry with rules.) Yet it still need rhythm (the musical definition*.) It needs to flow. At least, that is how my mind thinks of poetry.
To my musician mind, the things you describe as Pace, Rhythm, and Meter are all part of the “Rhythm” of writing. Since I have very little training or education in writing (it is mostly gut instinct), this makes more sense to me.
I think sentences, in any type of writing, need rhythm. By themselves and in context of a paragraph. Short or long, sentences need to flow as you read them. Of course, you can mix rhythms in a song to make it more interesting. The same holds true for writing (in my mind.)
Our terminology is different, but I think the basic idea is the same. Writing that flows when you read it. And like music, has the ability to move you.
*In music, Rhythm, is a catch-all term that encompasses tempo, beats, time signature (meter), percussion, feel, swing, accents, etc. Basically, anything that is not the melody (the lead part, often sung) or the harmony (musical accompaniment, often chords). Although harmony and melody have rhythm.